PublicationsAll Works by Each Author

Adams, Jackie

Sankoff, David, Nathalie Dion, Alex Brandts, Mayer Alvo, Sonia Balasch & Jackie Adams. 2015. Comparing variables in different corpora with context-based model-free variant probabilities. In Linguistic Variation: Confronting Fact and Theory, ed. by R. Torres Cacoullos, N. Dion & A. Lapierre, 335-345. Routledge.

Alvo, Mayer

Sankoff, David, Nathalie Dion, Alex Brandts, Mayer Alvo, Sonia Balasch & Jackie Adams. 2015. Comparing variables in different corpora with context-based model-free variant probabilities. In Linguistic Variation: Confronting Fact and Theory, ed. by R. Torres Cacoullos, N. Dion & A. Lapierre, 335-345. Routledge.

Balasch, Sonia

Sankoff, David, Nathalie Dion, Alex Brandts, Mayer Alvo, Sonia Balasch & Jackie Adams. 2015. Comparing variables in different corpora with context-based model-free variant probabilities. In Linguistic Variation: Confronting Fact and Theory, ed. by R. Torres Cacoullos, N. Dion & A. Lapierre, 335-345. Routledge.

Berlinck, Rosane de Andrade

Poplack, Shana, Rena Torres Cacoullos, Nathalie Dion, Rosane de Andrade Berlinck, Salvatore Digesto, Dora LaCasse & Johnathan Steuck. 2018. Trajectories of change in Romance sociolinguistics. In Manuals in Romance Linguistics: Romance Sociolinguistics Linguistics, ed. by W. Ayres-Bennett & J. Carruthers, 217-252. de Gruyter.

Blondeau, Hélène

Blondeau, Hélène. 2003. The old nous and the new nous. A comparison of 19th and 20th century spoken Quebec French. Penn Working Papers in Linguistics 9, 2. 1-15.

Dion, Nathalie & Hélène Blondeau. 2005. Variability and future temporal reference: the French of Anglo-Montrealers. Penn Working Papers in Linguistics 10, 2 (Selected Papers from NWAV 32). 77-89.

Blondeau, Hélène, Nathalie Dion & Zoe Ziliak Michel. 2013. Future temporal reference in the bilingual repertoire of Anglo-Montrealers: A twin variable. International Journal of Bilingualism 18, 6. 674-692.

Blythe, Richard

Hruschka, Daniel, Morten Christiansen, Richard Blythe, William Croft, Paul Heggarty, Salikoko Mufwene, Janet Pierrehumbert & Shana Poplack. 2009. Building social cognitive models of language change. Trends in Cognitive Science 13, 11. 464-469.

Brandts, Alex

Sankoff, David, Nathalie Dion, Alex Brandts, Mayer Alvo, Sonia Balasch & Jackie Adams. 2015. Comparing variables in different corpora with context-based model-free variant probabilities. In Linguistic Variation: Confronting Fact and Theory, ed. by R. Torres Cacoullos, N. Dion & A. Lapierre, 335-345. Routledge.

Budzhak-Jones, Svitlana

Budzhak-Jones, Svitlana. 1994. Variable rule analysis of V/U alternation constraints in Canadian Ukrainian. Journal of Quantitative Linguistics 1, 3. 202-211.

Budzhak-Jones, Svitlana & Shana Poplack. 1997. Two generations, two strategies: the fate of bare English-origin nouns in Ukrainian. Journal of Sociolinguistics 1, 2. 225-258.

Reprinted as: The visible loanword: processes of integration seen in bare English-origin nouns in Ukrainian. In Contemporary approaches to second language acquisition in social context: crosslinguistic perspectives, ed. by V. Regan, 137-167. Dublin: University College Dublin Press. 1998.

Budzhak-Jones, Svitlana. 1998. Developing diagnostics: word-internal code-switching versus borrowing. Cahiers linguistiques d’Ottawa 26. 1-14.

Budzhak-Jones, Svitlana. 1998. Against word-internal code-switching: evidence from Ukrainian-English bilingualism. International Journal of Bilingualism 2, 2. 161-182.

Christiansen, Morten

Hruschka, Daniel, Morten Christiansen, Richard Blythe, William Croft, Paul Heggarty, Salikoko Mufwene, Janet Pierrehumbert & Shana Poplack. 2009. Building social cognitive models of language change. Trends in Cognitive Science 13, 11. 464-469.

Croft, William

Hruschka, Daniel, Morten Christiansen, Richard Blythe, William Croft, Paul Heggarty, Salikoko Mufwene, Janet Pierrehumbert & Shana Poplack. 2009. Building social cognitive models of language change. Trends in Cognitive Science 13, 11. 464-469.

Digesto, Salvatore

Poplack, Shana, Rena Torres Cacoullos, Nathalie Dion, Rosane de Andrade Berlinck, Salvatore Digesto, Dora LaCasse & Johnathan Steuck. 2018. Trajectories of change in Romance sociolinguistics. In Manuals in Romance Linguistics: Romance Sociolinguistics Linguistics, ed. by W. Ayres-Bennett & J. Carruthers, 217-252. de Gruyter.

Dion, Nathalie

Dion, Nathalie & Hélène Blondeau. 2005. Variability and future temporal reference: the French of Anglo-Montrealers. Penn Working Papers in Linguistics 10, 2 (Selected Papers from NWAV 32). 77-89.

Poplack, Shana & Nathalie Dion. 2009. Prescription vs. praxis: The evolution of future temporal reference in French. Language 85, 3. 557-587.

Poplack, Shana & Nathalie Dion. 2012. Myths and facts about loanword development. Language Variation and Change 24, 3. 279-315.

Poplack, Shana, Lauren Zentz & Nathalie Dion. 2012. Phrase-final prepositions in Quebec French: An empirical study of contact, code-switching and resistance to convergence. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 15, 2. 203-225.

Poplack, Shana, Lauren Zentz & Nathalie Dion. 2012. What counts as (contact-induced) change. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 15, 2. 247-254.

Blondeau, Hélène, Nathalie Dion & Zoe Ziliak Michel. 2013. Future temporal reference in the bilingual repertoire of Anglo-Montrealers: A twin variable. International Journal of Bilingualism 18, 6. 674-692.

Poplack, Shana, Allison V. Lealess & Nathalie Dion. 2013. The evolving grammar of the French subjunctive. Probus 25, 1. 139-193.

Torres Cacoullos, Rena, Nathalie Dion & André Lapierre. 2015. Linguistic Variation: Confronting Fact and Theory. Routledge.

Dion, Nathalie, André Lapierre & Rena Torres Cacoullos. 2015. Towards a science of grammar and a critical sociolinguistics. In Linguistic Variation: Confronting Fact and Theory, ed. by R. Torres Cacoullos, N. Dion & A. Lapierre, 1-14. Routledge.

Poplack, Shana, Lidia-Gabriela Jarmasz, Nathalie Dion & Nicole Rosen. 2015. Searching for "Standard French": the construction and mining of the Recueil historique des grammaires du français. Journal of Historical Sociolinguistics 1, 1. 13-56.

Poplack, Shana, Lotfi Sayahi, Nahed Mourad & Nathalie Dion. 2015. An exception to the rule? Lone French nouns in Tunisian Arabic. Penn Working Papers in Linguistics 21, 2 (Selected Papers from NWAV 43). 178-186.

Sankoff, David, Nathalie Dion, Alex Brandts, Mayer Alvo, Sonia Balasch & Jackie Adams. 2015. Comparing variables in different corpora with context-based model-free variant probabilities. In Linguistic Variation: Confronting Fact and Theory, ed. by R. Torres Cacoullos, N. Dion & A. Lapierre, 335-345. Routledge.

Poplack, Shana, Rena Torres Cacoullos, Nathalie Dion, Rosane de Andrade Berlinck, Salvatore Digesto, Dora LaCasse & Johnathan Steuck. 2018. Trajectories of change in Romance sociolinguistics. In Manuals in Romance Linguistics: Romance Sociolinguistics Linguistics, ed. by W. Ayres-Bennett & J. Carruthers, 217-252. de Gruyter.

Poplack, Shana, Nathalie Dion & Lauren Zentz. 2019. L’anglicisme syntaxique : Produit inévitable du contact des langues ? Circula : revue d’idéologies linguistiques 9. 78-105.

Poplack, Shana, Suzanne Robillard, Nathalie Dion & John Paolillo. Accepted. Revisiting phonetic integration in bilingual borrowing. Language.

Elsig, Martin

Elsig, Martin & Shana Poplack. 2006. Transplanted dialects and language change: question formation in Québec. Penn Working Papers in Linguistics 12, 2 (Selected Papers from NWAV 34). 77-90.

Reprinted as: Synchronic variation in diachronic perspective: question formation in Québec French. In Describing and Modeling Variation in Grammar, Trends in Linguistics. Studies and Monographs, ed. by A. Dufter, J. Fleischer & G. Seiler, 255-270. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 2009.

Elsig, Martin. 2009. Grammatical Variation Across Space and Time: The French Interrogative System. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing.

Eze, Ejike

Tagliamonte, Sali, Shana Poplack & Ejike Eze. 1997. Plural marking patterns in Nigerian Pidgin English. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 12, 1. 103-129.

Eze, Ejike. 1998. Lending credence to a borrowing analysis: lone English-origin incorporations in Igbo discourse. International Journal of Bilingualism 2, 2. 183-202.

Poplack, Shana, Sali Tagliamonte & Ejike Eze. 2000. Reconstructing the source of Early African American English plural marking: a comparative study of English and creole. In The English History of African American English, ed. by S. Poplack, 73-105. Oxford & Malden: Blackwell Publishers.

Foley, Michele

Meechan, Marjory & Michele Foley. 1994. On resolving disagreement: linguistic theory and variation - there’s bridges. Language Variation and Change 6, 1. 63-85.

Ghafar Samar, Reza

Ghafar Samar, Reza & Marjory Meechan. 1998. The null theory of code-switching versus the nonce borrowing hypothesis: testing the fit in Persian-English bilingual discourse. International Journal of Bilingualism 2, 2. 203-220.

Ghafar Samar, Reza & Marjory Meechan. 1998. Variability in relative clause usage in Persian: evidence for transfer? In NWAVE 26 à Université Laval, ed. by Claude Paradis et al., 281-290. Québec: Éditions Nota Bene.

Hansen, Anita

Hansen, Anita. 1988. L’aspiration du [J] à Hull (Québec): approche sociolinguistique. Revue romane 23, 2. 178-197.

Harvie, Dawn

Harvie, Dawn. 1998. Null subject in English. Cahiers linguistiques d’Ottawa 26. 15-25.

Tottie, Gunnel & Dawn Harvie. 2000. It’s all relative: relativization strategies in early African American English. In The English History of African American English, ed. by S. Poplack, 198-230. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.

Poplack, Shana, Gerard Van Herk & Dawn Harvie. 2002. “Deformed in the dialects”: an alternative history of non-standard English. In Alternative Histories of English, ed. by P. Trudgill & D. Watts, 87-110. London: Routledge.

Reprinted as: Variability in invariant grammars: the Ottawa grammar resource on early variability in English. Penn Working Papers in Linguistics 8, 3. 223-234. 2002.

Heggarty, Paul

Hruschka, Daniel, Morten Christiansen, Richard Blythe, William Croft, Paul Heggarty, Salikoko Mufwene, Janet Pierrehumbert & Shana Poplack. 2009. Building social cognitive models of language change. Trends in Cognitive Science 13, 11. 464-469.

Howe, Darin

Howe, Darin. 1997. Negation and the history of African American English. Language Variation and Change 9, 2. 267-294.

Howe, Darin & James A. Walker. 2000. Negation and the creole-origins hypothesis: evidence from early African American English. In The English History of African American English, ed. by S. Poplack, 109-140. Oxford & Malden: Blackwell Publishers.

Hruschka, Daniel

Hruschka, Daniel, Morten Christiansen, Richard Blythe, William Croft, Paul Heggarty, Salikoko Mufwene, Janet Pierrehumbert & Shana Poplack. 2009. Building social cognitive models of language change. Trends in Cognitive Science 13, 11. 464-469.

Hudson, Rachel

Tagliamonte, Sali & Rachel Hudson. 1999. Be like et al. beyond America: the quotative system in British and Canadian youth. Journal of Sociolinguistics 3, 2. 147-172.

Jarmasz, Lidia-Gabriela

Leroux, Martine & Lidia-Gabriela Jarmasz. 2006. A study about nothing: Null subjects as a diagnostic of convergence between English and French. Penn Working Papers in Linguistics 12, 2 (Selected Papers from NWAV 34). 1-14.

Poplack, Shana, Lidia-Gabriela Jarmasz, Nathalie Dion & Nicole Rosen. 2015. Searching for "Standard French": the construction and mining of the Recueil historique des grammaires du français. Journal of Historical Sociolinguistics 1, 1. 13-56.

Kastronic, Laura

Kastronic, Laura. 2011. Discourse Like in Quebec English. Penn Working Papers in Linguistics 17, 2. Article 13.

Kastronic, Laura & Shana Poplack. 2014. The (North) American English mandative subjunctive in the 21st century: revival or remnant? Penn Working Papers in Linguistics 20, 2 (Selected Papers from NWAV 42). 71-80.

Labelle, Marie

Labelle, Marie. 1987. L’utilisation des temps du passé dans les narrations françaises: le passé composé, l’imparfait et le présent historique. Revue romane 22, 1. 3-29.

LaCasse, Dora

Poplack, Shana, Rena Torres Cacoullos, Nathalie Dion, Rosane de Andrade Berlinck, Salvatore Digesto, Dora LaCasse & Johnathan Steuck. 2018. Trajectories of change in Romance sociolinguistics. In Manuals in Romance Linguistics: Romance Sociolinguistics Linguistics, ed. by W. Ayres-Bennett & J. Carruthers, 217-252. de Gruyter.

Lapierre, André

Torres Cacoullos, Rena, Nathalie Dion & André Lapierre. 2015. Linguistic Variation: Confronting Fact and Theory. Routledge.

Dion, Nathalie, André Lapierre & Rena Torres Cacoullos. 2015. Towards a science of grammar and a critical sociolinguistics. In Linguistic Variation: Confronting Fact and Theory, ed. by R. Torres Cacoullos, N. Dion & A. Lapierre, 1-14. Routledge.

Lealess, Allison V.

Lealess, Allison V. & Chelsea T. Smith. 2011. Assessing contact-induced language change: The use of subject relative markers in Quebec English. Cahiers linguistiques d’Ottawa 36. 20-38.

Poplack, Shana, Allison V. Lealess & Nathalie Dion. 2013. The evolving grammar of the French subjunctive. Probus 25, 1. 139-193.

LeBlanc, Carmen

LeBlanc, Carmen. 1998. Une fois n’est pas coutume: le passé habituel en anglais. Cahiers linguistiques d’Ottawa 26. 27-38.

Leroux, Martine

Leroux, Martine. 2005. Past but not gone: the past temporal reference system in Quebec French. Penn Working Papers in Linguistics 11, 2 (Selected Papers from NWAV 33). 119-131.

Leroux, Martine & Lidia-Gabriela Jarmasz. 2006. A study about nothing: Null subjects as a diagnostic of convergence between English and French. Penn Working Papers in Linguistics 12, 2 (Selected Papers from NWAV 34). 1-14.

Levey, Stephen

Poplack, Shana & Stephen Levey. 2010. Contact-induced grammatical change. In Language and Space – An International Handbook of Linguistic Variation: Volume 1 – Theories and Methods, ed. by P. Auer & J. E. Schmidt, 391-419. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Poplack, Shana & Stephen Levey. 2011. Variabilité et changement dans les grammaires en contact. In Le français en contact: hommages à Raymond Mougeon, collection “Les Voies du français”, ed. by F. Martineau & T. Nadasdi, 247-280. Québec: Presses de l’Université Laval.

Malcolmson, Rebecca

Poplack, Shana, James A. Walker & Rebecca Malcolmson. 2006. An English “like no other”?: Language contact and change in Quebec. Canadian Journal of Linguistics 51, 2/3. 185-213.

Reprinted in: Focus on language issues in Canada, ed. by M. Howard, 156-185. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Press. 2007.

Malvar, Elisabete

Poplack, Shana & Elisabete Malvar. 2006. Modelling linguistic change: the past and the present of the future in Brazilian Portuguese. In Language Variation; European Perspectives, ed. by Frans Hinskens, 169-199. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins.

Poplack, Shana & Elisabete Malvar. 2007. Elucidating the transition period in linguistic change. Probus 19, 1. 121-169.

Malvar, Elisabete & Shana Poplack. 2008. O presente e o passado do futuro no Português do Brasil. In Anthony Julius Naro e a Lingüística no Brasil: Uma homenágem académica, ed. by S. Votre & C. Roncarati, 186-206. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Press.

Martineau, France

Martineau, France. 1988. Variable deletion of que in the spoken French of Ottawa-Hull. In Advances in Romance Linguistics, ed. by J.-P. Montreuil & D. Birdsong, 275-287. Dordrecht: Foris.

Meechan, Marjory

Meechan, Marjory & Michele Foley. 1994. On resolving disagreement: linguistic theory and variation - there’s bridges. Language Variation and Change 6, 1. 63-85.

Poplack, Shana & Marjory Meechan. 1994. The establishment of categorial equivalence in bilingual discourse: A comparative study of Wolof-French and Fongbe-French. In Proceedings of the European Science Foundation Summer School on Code-Switching and Language Contact, 179-191. Lyouwert/Leeuwarden: Fryske Akademy.

Meechan, Marjory & Shana Poplack. 1995. Orphan categories in bilingual discourse: A comparative study of adjectivization strategies in Wolof/French and Fongbe/French. Language Variation and Change 7, 2. 169-194.

Poplack, Shana & Marjory Meechan. 1995. Patterns of language mixture: Nominal structure in Wolof-French and Fongbe-French bilingual discourse. In One Speaker, Two Languages, ed. by P. Muysken & L. Milroy, 199-232. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Poplack, Shana & Marjory Meechan (eds.). 1998. Instant loans, easy conditions: the productivity of bilingual borrowing. International Journal of Bilingualism 2, 2 (Special issue).

Ghafar Samar, Reza & Marjory Meechan. 1998. The null theory of code-switching versus the nonce borrowing hypothesis: testing the fit in Persian-English bilingual discourse. International Journal of Bilingualism 2, 2. 203-220.

Ghafar Samar, Reza & Marjory Meechan. 1998. Variability in relative clause usage in Persian: evidence for transfer? In NWAVE 26 à Université Laval, ed. by Claude Paradis et al., 281-290. Québec: Éditions Nota Bene.

Meechan, Marjory. 1998. “I guess we have Mormon language”: American English in a Canadian setting. Cahiers linguistiques d’Ottawa 26. 39-54.

Poplack, Shana & Marjory Meechan. 1998. How languages fit together in code-mixing. International Journal of Bilingualism 2, 2. 127-138.

Poplack, Shana & Marjory Meechan. 1999. The nature of constraints on contact-induced change. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 2, 2. 84-85.

Walker, James A. & Marjory Meechan. 1999. The decreolization of Canadian English: copula contraction and prosody. In CLA Annual Conference Proceedings 1998, ed. by J. Jensen & G. Van Herk, 431-441. Ottawa: Department of Linguistics, University of Ottawa.

Miller, Chris

Poplack, Shana, David Sankoff & Chris Miller. 1988. The social correlates and linguistic processes of lexical borrowing and assimilation. Linguistics 26, 1. 47-104.

Mourad, Nahed

Poplack, Shana, Lotfi Sayahi, Nahed Mourad & Nathalie Dion. 2015. An exception to the rule? Lone French nouns in Tunisian Arabic. Penn Working Papers in Linguistics 21, 2 (Selected Papers from NWAV 43). 178-186.

Mufwene, Salikoko

Hruschka, Daniel, Morten Christiansen, Richard Blythe, William Croft, Paul Heggarty, Salikoko Mufwene, Janet Pierrehumbert & Shana Poplack. 2009. Building social cognitive models of language change. Trends in Cognitive Science 13, 11. 464-469.

Otheguy, Ricardo

Otheguy, Ricardo. 2018. Letter from Ricardo Otheguy to Shana Poplack. In Questioning Theoretical Primitives in Linguistic Inquiry (Papers in honor of Ricardo Otheguy), ed. by N. Shin & D. Erker, 35-43. Studies in Functional and Structural Linguistics. Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Paolillo, John

Poplack, Shana, Suzanne Robillard, Nathalie Dion & John Paolillo. Accepted. Revisiting phonetic integration in bilingual borrowing. Language.

Pérusse, Claire

Pérusse, Claire. 1987. Un exemple de variation phonologique: l’ouverture et la diphtongaison de (E). In Tendances actuelles de recherche sur la langue parlée, ed. by J. Auger. CIRB Publication B-166, Université Laval.

Pierrehumbert, Janet

Hruschka, Daniel, Morten Christiansen, Richard Blythe, William Croft, Paul Heggarty, Salikoko Mufwene, Janet Pierrehumbert & Shana Poplack. 2009. Building social cognitive models of language change. Trends in Cognitive Science 13, 11. 464-469.

Poplack, Shana

Poplack, Shana. 1985. Contrasting patterns of code-switching in two communities. In Methods V: Papers from the V International Conference on Methods in Dialectology, ed. by H. J. Warkentyne, 363-385. Victoria, B.C.: University of Victoria.

Reprinted in: Aspects of Multilingualism, ed. by E. Wande et al., 51-77. Uppsala: Borgströms. 1987.

Reprinted in: Code-switching: anthropological and sociolinguistic perspectives, ed. by M. Heller, 215-244. The Hague: Mouton de Gruyter. 1988.

Reprinted in: The sociolinguistics reader, vol. 1: multilingualism and variation, ed. by P. Trudgill & J. Cheshire, 44-65. London/New York: Arnold. 1998.

Poplack, Shana & Douglas Walker. 1986. Going through (L) in Canadian French. In Diversity and Diachrony, ed. by D. Sankoff, 173-198. Amsterdam: Benjamins.

Poplack, Shana & David Sankoff. 1987. The Philadelphia Story in the Spanish Caribbean. American Speech 62, 4. 291-314.

Poplack, Shana, Susan Wheeler & Anneli Westwood. 1987. Distinguishing language contact phenomena: evidence from Finnish-English bilingualism. In The Nordic Languages and Modern Linguistics 6, ed. by P. Lilius & M. Saari, 33-56. Helsinki: University of Helsinki Press.

Reprinted in: Bilingualism across the lifespan, ed. by K. Hyltenstam & L. Obler, 132-154. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1989.

Reprinted in: Code-switching as a world-wide phenomenon, ed. by R. Jacobson, 170-185. New York: Peter Lang. 1990.

Reprinted in: World Englishes 8, 3. 389-406. 1989.

Poplack, Shana. 1988. Conséquences linguistiques du contact de langues: un modèle d’analyse variationniste. Langage et société 43. 23-48.

Poplack, Shana. 1988. Conséquences linguistiques du contact de langues: un modèle d’analyse variationniste. Langage et société 43. 23-48.

Poplack, Shana. 1988. Language status and language accommodation along a linguistic border. In GURT 87: Language Spread and Language Policy: Issues, Implications, and Case Studies, ed. by P. Lowenberg, 90-118. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.

Poplack, Shana & David Sankoff. 1988. Code-switching. In Sociolinguistics: An International Handbook of the Science of Language and Society, vol. 2, ed. by U. Ammon, N. Dittmar & K. J. Mattheier, 1174-1180. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

Poplack, Shana, David Sankoff & Chris Miller. 1988. The social correlates and linguistic processes of lexical borrowing and assimilation. Linguistics 26, 1. 47-104.

Tagliamonte, Sali & Shana Poplack. 1988. How Black English past got to the present: evidence from Samaná. Language in Society 17, 4. 513-533.

Poplack, Shana. 1989. The care and handling of a mega-corpus. In Language Change and Variation, ed. by R. Fasold & D. Schiffrin, 411-451. Amsterdam: Benjamins.

Poplack, Shana & Sali Tagliamonte. 1989. There’s no tense like the present: verbal -s inflection in Early Black English. Language Variation and Change 1, 1. 47-84.

Reprinted in: York Papers in Linguistics 13. 237-278. 1989.

Reprinted in: The emergence of Black English: Text and commentary, ed. by G. Bailey et al., 275-324. Amsterdam: Benjamins. 1991.

Poplack, Shana. 1990. Prescription, intuition et usage: le subjonctif français et la variabilité inhérente. Langage et société 54. 5-33.

Sankoff, David, Shana Poplack & Swathi Vanniarajan. 1990. The case of the nonce loan in Tamil. Language Variation and Change 2, 1. 71-101.

Reprinted as: The empirical study of code-switching. In Papers for the Symposium on Code-switching in Bilingual Studies: Theory, Significance and Perspectives (abridged version), 181-206. Strasbourg: European Science Foundation. 1991.

Poplack, Shana & Sali Tagliamonte. 1991. African American English in the diaspora: evidence from old-line Nova Scotians. Language Variation and Change 3, 3. 301-339.

Reprinted in: Varieties of English around the world: Focus on Canada, ed. by S. Clarke, 109-150. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins. 1993.

Poplack, Shana. 1992. The inherent variability of the French subjunctive. In Theoretical Analyses in Romance Linguistics, ed. by C. Laeufer & T. Morgan, 235-263. Amsterdam: Benjamins.

Poplack, Shana. 1993. Variation theory and language contact. In American Dialect Research: An Anthology Celebrating the 100th Anniversary of the American Dialect Society, ed. by D. Preston, 251-286. Amsterdam: Benjamins.

Tagliamonte, Sali & Shana Poplack. 1993. The zero-marked verb: testing the creole hypothesis. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 8, 2. 171-206.

Poplack, Shana. 1994. A dinâmica sociolingüística da aparente convergência. D.E.L.T.A. 10 (Special issue). 141-172

Poplack, Shana & Marjory Meechan. 1994. The establishment of categorial equivalence in bilingual discourse: A comparative study of Wolof-French and Fongbe-French. In Proceedings of the European Science Foundation Summer School on Code-Switching and Language Contact, 179-191. Lyouwert/Leeuwarden: Fryske Akademy.

Poplack, Shana & Sali Tagliamonte. 1994. -S or nothing: marking the plural in the African American diaspora. American Speech 69, 3. 227-259.

Meechan, Marjory & Shana Poplack. 1995. Orphan categories in bilingual discourse: A comparative study of adjectivization strategies in Wolof/French and Fongbe/French. Language Variation and Change 7, 2. 169-194.

Poplack, Shana & Marjory Meechan. 1995. Patterns of language mixture: Nominal structure in Wolof-French and Fongbe-French bilingual discourse. In One Speaker, Two Languages, ed. by P. Muysken & L. Milroy, 199-232. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Poplack, Shana & Sali Tagliamonte. 1996. Nothing in context: variation, grammaticization and past time marking in Nigerian Pidgin English. In Changing Meanings, Changing Functions. Papers Relating to Grammaticalization in Contact Languages, ed. by P. Baker & A. Syea, 71-94. Westminster, UK: University Press.

Reprinted in: Cuadernos de Filología Inglesa 8, 1 (Special Issue on Variation and Linguistic Change in English: Diachronic and Synchronic Studies), ed. by J. C. Conde-Silvestre & J. M. Hernandez-Campoy, 193-217. Murcia: Servicio de publicaciones de la Universidad de Murcia. 1999.

Budzhak-Jones, Svitlana & Shana Poplack. 1997. Two generations, two strategies: the fate of bare English-origin nouns in Ukrainian. Journal of Sociolinguistics 1, 2. 225-258.

Reprinted as: The visible loanword: processes of integration seen in bare English-origin nouns in Ukrainian. In Contemporary approaches to second language acquisition in social context: crosslinguistic perspectives, ed. by V. Regan, 137-167. Dublin: University College Dublin Press. 1998.

Poplack, Shana. 1997. The sociolinguistic dynamics of apparent convergence. In Towards a Social Science of Language: Papers in Honor of William Labov, ed. by G. Guy, C. Feagin, J. Baugh & D. Schiffrin, 285-309. Amsterdam: Benjamins.

Tagliamonte, Sali, Shana Poplack & Ejike Eze. 1997. Plural marking patterns in Nigerian Pidgin English. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 12, 1. 103-129.

Poplack, Shana (ed.). 1998. Perspectives on Linguistic Variation: The View from 70 Laurier. Cahiers linguistiques d’Ottawa 26 (Special issue).

Poplack, Shana & Marjory Meechan (eds.). 1998. Instant loans, easy conditions: the productivity of bilingual borrowing. International Journal of Bilingualism 2, 2 (Special issue).

Poplack, Shana & Marjory Meechan. 1998. How languages fit together in code-mixing. International Journal of Bilingualism 2, 2. 127-138.

Poplack, Shana & Marjory Meechan. 1999. The nature of constraints on contact-induced change. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 2, 2. 84-85.

Poplack, Shana & Danielle Turpin. 1999. Does the FUTUR have a future in (Canadian) French? Probus 11, 1. 133-164.

Reprinted as: O FUTUR tem futuro no francês Canadense? Cadernos de Estudos Lingüísticos 36 (translation). 17-46. 1999.

Poplack, Shana (ed.). 2000. The English History of African American English. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.

Poplack, Shana. 2000. Introduction. In The English History of African American English, ed. by S. Poplack, 1-31. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.

Poplack, Shana & Sali Tagliamonte. 2000. The grammaticization of going to in (African American) English. Language Variation and Change 11, 3. 315-342.

Poplack, Shana, Sali Tagliamonte & Ejike Eze. 2000. Reconstructing the source of Early African American English plural marking: a comparative study of English and creole. In The English History of African American English, ed. by S. Poplack, 73-105. Oxford & Malden: Blackwell Publishers.

Poplack, Shana & Sali Tagliamonte. 2001. African American English in the Diaspora. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Poplack, Shana. 2001. Variability, frequency and productivity in the irrealis domain of French. In Frequency and the Emergence of Linguistic Structure, ed. by J. Bybee & P. Hopper, 405-428. Amsterdam: Benjamins.

Reprinted as: Variabilidad, frecuencia y productividad en el campo irrealis del francés. In Haciendo Lingüística: Homenaje a Paola Bentivoglio, ed. by M. Sedano, A. Bolívar & M. Shiro, 285-307. Caracas: Universidad Central de Venezuela Press. 2006.

Poplack, Shana. 2001. Code-switching (linguistic). In International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, ed. by N. Smelser & P. Baltes, 2062-2065. Elsevier Science Ltd.

Poplack, Shana, Gerard Van Herk & Dawn Harvie. 2002. “Deformed in the dialects”: an alternative history of non-standard English. In Alternative Histories of English, ed. by P. Trudgill & D. Watts, 87-110. London: Routledge.

Reprinted as: Variability in invariant grammars: the Ottawa grammar resource on early variability in English. Penn Working Papers in Linguistics 8, 3. 223-234. 2002.

Van Herk, Gerard & Shana Poplack. 2003. Rewriting the past: Bare verbs in the Ottawa Repository of Early African American Correspondence. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 18, 2. 231-266.

Poplack, Shana. 2004. Code-switching. In Soziolinguistik: an international handbook of the science of language (2nd edition), ed. by U. Ammon, N. Dittmar, K. J. Mattheier & P. Trudgill, 589-596. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

Poplack, Shana & Sali Tagliamonte. 2004. Back to the present: verbal -s in the (African American) English diaspora. In The Legacy of Non-Standard Colonial English: The Study of Transported Dialects, ed. by R. Hickey, 203-223. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Elsig, Martin & Shana Poplack. 2006. Transplanted dialects and language change: question formation in Québec. Penn Working Papers in Linguistics 12, 2 (Selected Papers from NWAV 34). 77-90.

Reprinted as: Synchronic variation in diachronic perspective: question formation in Québec French. In Describing and Modeling Variation in Grammar, Trends in Linguistics. Studies and Monographs, ed. by A. Dufter, J. Fleischer & G. Seiler, 255-270. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 2009.

Poplack, Shana. 2006. How English became African American English. In The Handbook of the History of English (paperback edition of book), ed. by A. van Kemenade & B. Los, 452-476. Oxford: Blackwell.

Reprinted in: The handbook of the history of English, ed. by A. van Kemenade & B. Los, 452-476. Oxford: Blackwell. 2009.

Reprinted in: Language Variation and Change (Critical Concepts in Linguistics), Volume 2: Issues and Debates in the Study of Variation, ed. by R. Bayley & R. Cameron, 263-286. Routledge. 2014.

Poplack, Shana & Elisabete Malvar. 2006. Modelling linguistic change: the past and the present of the future in Brazilian Portuguese. In Language Variation; European Perspectives, ed. by Frans Hinskens, 169-199. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins.

Poplack, Shana, James A. Walker & Rebecca Malcolmson. 2006. An English “like no other”?: Language contact and change in Quebec. Canadian Journal of Linguistics 51, 2/3. 185-213.

Reprinted in: Focus on language issues in Canada, ed. by M. Howard, 156-185. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Press. 2007.

Poplack, Shana. 2007. Foreword. In Creating and Digitizing Language Corpora, ed. by J. Beal, K. Corrigan & H. Moisl, ix-xiii. Houndmills: Palgrave-Macmillan.

Poplack, Shana & Elisabete Malvar. 2007. Elucidating the transition period in linguistic change. Probus 19, 1. 121-169.

Poplack, Shana & Anne St-Amand. 2007. A real-time window on 19th century vernacular French: The Récits du français québécois d’autrefois. Language in Society 36, 5. 707-734.

Malvar, Elisabete & Shana Poplack. 2008. O presente e o passado do futuro no Português do Brasil. In Anthony Julius Naro e a Lingüística no Brasil: Uma homenágem académica, ed. by S. Votre & C. Roncarati, 186-206. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Press.

Poplack, Shana. 2008. Quebec English. Anglistik International Journal of English Studies 19, 2 (Special issue: Focus on Canadian English). 189-200.

Hruschka, Daniel, Morten Christiansen, Richard Blythe, William Croft, Paul Heggarty, Salikoko Mufwene, Janet Pierrehumbert & Shana Poplack. 2009. Building social cognitive models of language change. Trends in Cognitive Science 13, 11. 464-469.

Poplack, Shana. 2009. Quelle langue parlons-nous? In Les Cahiers de la Fondation Trudeau, 125-147. Montréal: Fondation Trudeau.

Poplack, Shana. 2009. What language do we speak? In Trudeau Foundation papers, 117-139. Montréal: Fondation Trudeau.

Poplack, Shana & Nathalie Dion. 2009. Prescription vs. praxis: The evolution of future temporal reference in French. Language 85, 3. 557-587.

Poplack, Shana & Anne St-Amand. 2009. Les Récits du français québécois d’autrefois: reflet du parler vernaculaire du XIXe siècle. Canadian Journal of Linguistics 54, 3. 511-546.

Poplack, Shana & Stephen Levey. 2010. Contact-induced grammatical change. In Language and Space – An International Handbook of Linguistic Variation: Volume 1 – Theories and Methods, ed. by P. Auer & J. E. Schmidt, 391-419. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Poplack, Shana & Sali Tagliamonte. 2010. African Nova Scotian English in an enclave. In Canadian English: A Linguistic Reader, ed. by E. Gold & J. McAlpine, 146-154. Kingston: Strathy Language Unit, Queen’s University.

Poplack, Shana. 2011. Grammaticalization and linguistic variation. In Handbook of Grammaticalization, ed. by B. Heine & H. Narrog, 209-224. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Poplack, Shana & Stephen Levey. 2011. Variabilité et changement dans les grammaires en contact. In Le français en contact: hommages à Raymond Mougeon, collection “Les Voies du français”, ed. by F. Martineau & T. Nadasdi, 247-280. Québec: Presses de l’Université Laval.

Poplack, Shana. 2012. What does the Nonce Borrowing Hypothesis hypothesize? Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 15, 3. 644-648.

Poplack, Shana & Nathalie Dion. 2012. Myths and facts about loanword development. Language Variation and Change 24, 3. 279-315.

Poplack, Shana, Lauren Zentz & Nathalie Dion. 2012. Phrase-final prepositions in Quebec French: An empirical study of contact, code-switching and resistance to convergence. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 15, 2. 203-225.

Poplack, Shana, Lauren Zentz & Nathalie Dion. 2012. What counts as (contact-induced) change. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 15, 2. 247-254.

Poplack, Shana. 2013. Foreword to "Sometimes I’ll start a sentence in Spanish Y TERMINO EN ESPAÑOL": Toward a typology of code-switching. Linguistics 1980, Volume 18, issue 7. 581-618. Linguistics 51 (Jubilee issue). 11-14.

Poplack, Shana, Allison V. Lealess & Nathalie Dion. 2013. The evolving grammar of the French subjunctive. Probus 25, 1. 139-193.

Kastronic, Laura & Shana Poplack. 2014. The (North) American English mandative subjunctive in the 21st century: revival or remnant? Penn Working Papers in Linguistics 20, 2 (Selected Papers from NWAV 42). 71-80.

Poplack, Shana. 2015. Code-switching (Linguistic). In International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2nd edition, 918-925. Elsevier Science Ltd.

Poplack, Shana. 2015. Norme prescriptive, norme communautaire et variation diaphasique. Variations diasystématiques et leurs interdépendances. Travaux de linguistique romane, ed. by K. Kragh & J. Lindschouw. 293-319.

Poplack, Shana, Lidia-Gabriela Jarmasz, Nathalie Dion & Nicole Rosen. 2015. Searching for "Standard French": the construction and mining of the Recueil historique des grammaires du français. Journal of Historical Sociolinguistics 1, 1. 13-56.

Poplack, Shana, Lotfi Sayahi, Nahed Mourad & Nathalie Dion. 2015. An exception to the rule? Lone French nouns in Tunisian Arabic. Penn Working Papers in Linguistics 21, 2 (Selected Papers from NWAV 43). 178-186.

Poplack, Shana & Rena Torres Cacoullos. 2015. Linguistic emergence on the ground: A variationist paradigm. In The Handbook of Language Emergence, ed. by B. MacWhinney & W. O’Grady, 267-291. Wiley-Blackwell.

Poplack, Shana & Rena Torres Cacoullos. 2016. Data before models. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 19, 5. 893-894.

Poplack, Shana. 2017. L’anglicisme chez nous: une perspective sociolinguistique. In Recueil des actes du Colloque du réseau des Organismes francophones de politique et d’aménagement linguistiques (OPALE). Les anglicismes: des emprunts à intérêt variable?, Québec, 18 et 19 octobre 2016, 375-403. Montréal: Publications de l’Office québécois de la langue française.

Poplack, Shana. 2018. Borrowing: Loanwords in the Speech Community and in the Grammar. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Poplack, Shana. 2018. Categories of grammar and categories of speech: When the quest for symmetry meets inherent variability. In Questioning Theoretical Primitives in Linguistic Inquiry (Papers in honor of Ricardo Otheguy), ed. by N. Shin & D. Erker, 7-34. Studies in Functional and Structural Linguistics. Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Poplack, Shana, Rena Torres Cacoullos, Nathalie Dion, Rosane de Andrade Berlinck, Salvatore Digesto, Dora LaCasse & Johnathan Steuck. 2018. Trajectories of change in Romance sociolinguistics. In Manuals in Romance Linguistics: Romance Sociolinguistics Linguistics, ed. by W. Ayres-Bennett & J. Carruthers, 217-252. de Gruyter.

Poplack, Shana, Nathalie Dion & Lauren Zentz. 2019. L’anglicisme syntaxique : Produit inévitable du contact des langues ? Circula : revue d’idéologies linguistiques 9. 78-105.

Poplack, Shana, Suzanne Robillard, Nathalie Dion & John Paolillo. Accepted. Revisiting phonetic integration in bilingual borrowing. Language.

Poplack, Shana. In Press. A variationist perspective on language contact. In Routledge Handbook of Language Contact, ed. by E. Adamou & Y. Matras. New York/London: Routledge.

Poplack, Shana. In Press. Data Management @ the uOttawa Sociolinguistics Laboratory. In The Open Handbook of Linguistic Data Management, ed. by A. Berez-Kroker, B. McDonnell & E. Koller. Open Handbooks in Linguistics Series, MIT Press Open.

Reed, Lisa

Reed, Lisa. 1992. Remarks on word order in French causatives. Linguistic Inquiry 23, 1. 164-172.

Robillard, Suzanne

Poplack, Shana, Suzanne Robillard, Nathalie Dion & John Paolillo. Accepted. Revisiting phonetic integration in bilingual borrowing. Language.

Rosen, Nicole

Poplack, Shana, Lidia-Gabriela Jarmasz, Nathalie Dion & Nicole Rosen. 2015. Searching for "Standard French": the construction and mining of the Recueil historique des grammaires du français. Journal of Historical Sociolinguistics 1, 1. 13-56.

Sankoff, David

Poplack, Shana & David Sankoff. 1987. The Philadelphia Story in the Spanish Caribbean. American Speech 62, 4. 291-314.

Poplack, Shana & David Sankoff. 1988. Code-switching. In Sociolinguistics: An International Handbook of the Science of Language and Society, vol. 2, ed. by U. Ammon, N. Dittmar & K. J. Mattheier, 1174-1180. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

Poplack, Shana, David Sankoff & Chris Miller. 1988. The social correlates and linguistic processes of lexical borrowing and assimilation. Linguistics 26, 1. 47-104.

Sankoff, David, Shana Poplack & Swathi Vanniarajan. 1990. The case of the nonce loan in Tamil. Language Variation and Change 2, 1. 71-101.

Reprinted as: The empirical study of code-switching. In Papers for the Symposium on Code-switching in Bilingual Studies: Theory, Significance and Perspectives (abridged version), 181-206. Strasbourg: European Science Foundation. 1991.

Sankoff, David, Nathalie Dion, Alex Brandts, Mayer Alvo, Sonia Balasch & Jackie Adams. 2015. Comparing variables in different corpora with context-based model-free variant probabilities. In Linguistic Variation: Confronting Fact and Theory, ed. by R. Torres Cacoullos, N. Dion & A. Lapierre, 335-345. Routledge.

Sayahi, Lotfi

Poplack, Shana, Lotfi Sayahi, Nahed Mourad & Nathalie Dion. 2015. An exception to the rule? Lone French nouns in Tunisian Arabic. Penn Working Papers in Linguistics 21, 2 (Selected Papers from NWAV 43). 178-186.

Smith, Chelsea T.

Lealess, Allison V. & Chelsea T. Smith. 2011. Assessing contact-induced language change: The use of subject relative markers in Quebec English. Cahiers linguistiques d’Ottawa 36. 20-38.

Smith, Jennifer

Tagliamonte, Sali & Jennifer Smith. 1998. Roots of English in the African American diaspora? Links & Letters 5, 5 (Englishes). 147-165.

Tagliamonte, Sali & Jennifer Smith. 1999. Analogical levelling in Samaná English: the case of was and were. Journal of English Linguistics 27, 1. 8-16.

Tagliamonte, Sali & Jennifer Smith. 2000. Old was; new ecology: viewing English through the sociolinguistic filter. In The English History of African American English, ed. by S. Poplack, 141-171. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.

St-Amand, Anne

Poplack, Shana & Anne St-Amand. 2007. A real-time window on 19th century vernacular French: The Récits du français québécois d’autrefois. Language in Society 36, 5. 707-734.

Poplack, Shana & Anne St-Amand. 2009. Les Récits du français québécois d’autrefois: reflet du parler vernaculaire du XIXe siècle. Canadian Journal of Linguistics 54, 3. 511-546.

Steuck, Johnathan

Poplack, Shana, Rena Torres Cacoullos, Nathalie Dion, Rosane de Andrade Berlinck, Salvatore Digesto, Dora LaCasse & Johnathan Steuck. 2018. Trajectories of change in Romance sociolinguistics. In Manuals in Romance Linguistics: Romance Sociolinguistics Linguistics, ed. by W. Ayres-Bennett & J. Carruthers, 217-252. de Gruyter.

Tagliamonte, Sali

Tagliamonte, Sali & Shana Poplack. 1988. How Black English past got to the present: evidence from Samaná. Language in Society 17, 4. 513-533.

Poplack, Shana & Sali Tagliamonte. 1989. There’s no tense like the present: verbal -s inflection in Early Black English. Language Variation and Change 1, 1. 47-84.

Reprinted in: York Papers in Linguistics 13. 237-278. 1989.

Reprinted in: The emergence of Black English: Text and commentary, ed. by G. Bailey et al., 275-324. Amsterdam: Benjamins. 1991.

Poplack, Shana & Sali Tagliamonte. 1991. African American English in the diaspora: evidence from old-line Nova Scotians. Language Variation and Change 3, 3. 301-339.

Reprinted in: Varieties of English around the world: Focus on Canada, ed. by S. Clarke, 109-150. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins. 1993.

Tagliamonte, Sali & Shana Poplack. 1993. The zero-marked verb: testing the creole hypothesis. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 8, 2. 171-206.

Poplack, Shana & Sali Tagliamonte. 1994. -S or nothing: marking the plural in the African American diaspora. American Speech 69, 3. 227-259.

Poplack, Shana & Sali Tagliamonte. 1996. Nothing in context: variation, grammaticization and past time marking in Nigerian Pidgin English. In Changing Meanings, Changing Functions. Papers Relating to Grammaticalization in Contact Languages, ed. by P. Baker & A. Syea, 71-94. Westminster, UK: University Press.

Reprinted in: Cuadernos de Filología Inglesa 8, 1 (Special Issue on Variation and Linguistic Change in English: Diachronic and Synchronic Studies), ed. by J. C. Conde-Silvestre & J. M. Hernandez-Campoy, 193-217. Murcia: Servicio de publicaciones de la Universidad de Murcia. 1999.

Tagliamonte, Sali. 1996. Has it ever been PERFECT? Uncovering the grammar of early Black English. York Papers in Linguistics 17. 351-396.

Tagliamonte, Sali. 1997. Obsolescence in the English perfect? Evidence from Samaná English. American Speech 72, 1. 33-68.

Tagliamonte, Sali, Shana Poplack & Ejike Eze. 1997. Plural marking patterns in Nigerian Pidgin English. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 12, 1. 103-129.

Tagliamonte, Sali & Jennifer Smith. 1998. Roots of English in the African American diaspora? Links & Letters 5, 5 (Englishes). 147-165.

Tagliamonte, Sali & Rachel Hudson. 1999. Be like et al. beyond America: the quotative system in British and Canadian youth. Journal of Sociolinguistics 3, 2. 147-172.

Tagliamonte, Sali & Jennifer Smith. 1999. Analogical levelling in Samaná English: the case of was and were. Journal of English Linguistics 27, 1. 8-16.

Poplack, Shana & Sali Tagliamonte. 2000. The grammaticization of going to in (African American) English. Language Variation and Change 11, 3. 315-342.

Poplack, Shana, Sali Tagliamonte & Ejike Eze. 2000. Reconstructing the source of Early African American English plural marking: a comparative study of English and creole. In The English History of African American English, ed. by S. Poplack, 73-105. Oxford & Malden: Blackwell Publishers.

Tagliamonte, Sali. 2000. The story of KOM in Nigerian Pidgin English. In Theoretical Issues in Pidgin and Creole Studies, ed. by J. McWhorter, 353-382. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Tagliamonte, Sali. 2000. The grammaticalisation of the PRESENT PERFECT: tracks of change and continuity in a linguistic enclave. In Pathways of Change - Grammaticalization in English, ed. by O. Fischer, A. Rosenback & D. Stein, 329-354. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Tagliamonte, Sali & Jennifer Smith. 2000. Old was; new ecology: viewing English through the sociolinguistic filter. In The English History of African American English, ed. by S. Poplack, 141-171. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.

Poplack, Shana & Sali Tagliamonte. 2001. African American English in the Diaspora. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Tagliamonte, Sali. 2002. Comparative sociolinguistics. In Handbook of Language Variation and Change, ed. by J. Chambers, P. Trudgill & N. Schilling-Estes, 729-763. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.

Poplack, Shana & Sali Tagliamonte. 2004. Back to the present: verbal -s in the (African American) English diaspora. In The Legacy of Non-Standard Colonial English: The Study of Transported Dialects, ed. by R. Hickey, 203-223. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Poplack, Shana & Sali Tagliamonte. 2010. African Nova Scotian English in an enclave. In Canadian English: A Linguistic Reader, ed. by E. Gold & J. McAlpine, 146-154. Kingston: Strathy Language Unit, Queen’s University.

Torres Cacoullos, Rena

Torres Cacoullos, Rena, Nathalie Dion & André Lapierre. 2015. Linguistic Variation: Confronting Fact and Theory. Routledge.

Dion, Nathalie, André Lapierre & Rena Torres Cacoullos. 2015. Towards a science of grammar and a critical sociolinguistics. In Linguistic Variation: Confronting Fact and Theory, ed. by R. Torres Cacoullos, N. Dion & A. Lapierre, 1-14. Routledge.

Poplack, Shana & Rena Torres Cacoullos. 2015. Linguistic emergence on the ground: A variationist paradigm. In The Handbook of Language Emergence, ed. by B. MacWhinney & W. O’Grady, 267-291. Wiley-Blackwell.

Poplack, Shana & Rena Torres Cacoullos. 2016. Data before models. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 19, 5. 893-894.

Poplack, Shana, Rena Torres Cacoullos, Nathalie Dion, Rosane de Andrade Berlinck, Salvatore Digesto, Dora LaCasse & Johnathan Steuck. 2018. Trajectories of change in Romance sociolinguistics. In Manuals in Romance Linguistics: Romance Sociolinguistics Linguistics, ed. by W. Ayres-Bennett & J. Carruthers, 217-252. de Gruyter.

Tottie, Gunnel

Tottie, Gunnel & Dawn Harvie. 2000. It’s all relative: relativization strategies in early African American English. In The English History of African American English, ed. by S. Poplack, 198-230. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.

Turpin, Danielle

Turpin, Danielle. 1998. Le français, c’est le last frontier”: the status of English-origin nouns in Acadian French. International Journal of Bilingualism 2, 2. 221-233.

Poplack, Shana & Danielle Turpin. 1999. Does the FUTUR have a future in (Canadian) French? Probus 11, 1. 133-164.

Reprinted as: O FUTUR tem futuro no francês Canadense? Cadernos de Estudos Lingüísticos 36 (translation). 17-46. 1999.

Van Herk, Gerard

Van Herk, Gerard. 1998. Auxiliary verbs in early African American Vernacular English questions: non-inversion, deletion, and inherent variability. In CLA Annual Conference Proceedings 1998, ed. by J. Jensen & G. Van Herk, 421-430. Ottawa: Department of Linguistics, University of Ottawa.

Van Herk, Gerard. 1998. Inversion in Samaná English question formation. Cahiers linguistiques d’Ottawa 26. 71-83.

Van Herk, Gerard. 2000. The question question: auxiliary inversion in early African American English. In The English History of African American English, ed. by S. Poplack, 175-197. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.

Van Herk, Gerard. 2001. Barbadian lects: beyond meso. In Englishes of the Eastern Caribbean, ed. by M. Aceto & J. Williams, 241-264. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Poplack, Shana, Gerard Van Herk & Dawn Harvie. 2002. “Deformed in the dialects”: an alternative history of non-standard English. In Alternative Histories of English, ed. by P. Trudgill & D. Watts, 87-110. London: Routledge.

Reprinted as: Variability in invariant grammars: the Ottawa grammar resource on early variability in English. Penn Working Papers in Linguistics 8, 3. 223-234. 2002.

Van Herk, Gerard & Shana Poplack. 2003. Rewriting the past: Bare verbs in the Ottawa Repository of Early African American Correspondence. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 18, 2. 231-266.

Van Herk, Gerard & James A. Walker. 2005. S marks the spot? Regional variation and early African American correspondence. Language Variation and Change 17, 2. 113-131.

Van Herk, Gerard. 2008. Letter perfect: the present perfect in early African American correspondence. English World-Wide 29, 1. 45-69.

Vanniarajan, Swathi

Sankoff, David, Shana Poplack & Swathi Vanniarajan. 1990. The case of the nonce loan in Tamil. Language Variation and Change 2, 1. 71-101.

Reprinted as: The empirical study of code-switching. In Papers for the Symposium on Code-switching in Bilingual Studies: Theory, Significance and Perspectives (abridged version), 181-206. Strasbourg: European Science Foundation. 1991.

Walker, Douglas

Poplack, Shana & Douglas Walker. 1986. Going through (L) in Canadian French. In Diversity and Diachrony, ed. by D. Sankoff, 173-198. Amsterdam: Benjamins.

Walker, James A.

Walker, James A.. 1998. Rephrasing the copula: contracted and zero copula in African Nova Scotian English. Cahiers linguistiques d’Ottawa 26. 85-97.

Walker, James A. & Marjory Meechan. 1999. The decreolization of Canadian English: copula contraction and prosody. In CLA Annual Conference Proceedings 1998, ed. by J. Jensen & G. Van Herk, 431-441. Ottawa: Department of Linguistics, University of Ottawa.

Howe, Darin & James A. Walker. 2000. Negation and the creole-origins hypothesis: evidence from early African American English. In The English History of African American English, ed. by S. Poplack, 109-140. Oxford & Malden: Blackwell Publishers.

Walker, James A.. 2000. Rephrasing the copula: contraction and zero in early African American English. In The English History of African American English, ed. by S. Poplack, 35-72. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.

Walker, James A.. 2001. Using the past to explain the present: tense and temporal reference in Early African American English. Language Variation and Change 13, 1. 1-35.

Van Herk, Gerard & James A. Walker. 2005. S marks the spot? Regional variation and early African American correspondence. Language Variation and Change 17, 2. 113-131.

Walker, James A.. 2005. The ain’t constraint: not-contraction in Early African American English. Language Variation and Change 17, 1. 1-17.

Poplack, Shana, James A. Walker & Rebecca Malcolmson. 2006. An English “like no other”?: Language contact and change in Quebec. Canadian Journal of Linguistics 51, 2/3. 185-213.

Reprinted in: Focus on language issues in Canada, ed. by M. Howard, 156-185. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Press. 2007.

Westwood, Anneli

Poplack, Shana, Susan Wheeler & Anneli Westwood. 1987. Distinguishing language contact phenomena: evidence from Finnish-English bilingualism. In The Nordic Languages and Modern Linguistics 6, ed. by P. Lilius & M. Saari, 33-56. Helsinki: University of Helsinki Press.

Reprinted in: Bilingualism across the lifespan, ed. by K. Hyltenstam & L. Obler, 132-154. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1989.

Reprinted in: Code-switching as a world-wide phenomenon, ed. by R. Jacobson, 170-185. New York: Peter Lang. 1990.

Reprinted in: World Englishes 8, 3. 389-406. 1989.

Wheeler, Susan

Poplack, Shana, Susan Wheeler & Anneli Westwood. 1987. Distinguishing language contact phenomena: evidence from Finnish-English bilingualism. In The Nordic Languages and Modern Linguistics 6, ed. by P. Lilius & M. Saari, 33-56. Helsinki: University of Helsinki Press.

Reprinted in: Bilingualism across the lifespan, ed. by K. Hyltenstam & L. Obler, 132-154. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1989.

Reprinted in: Code-switching as a world-wide phenomenon, ed. by R. Jacobson, 170-185. New York: Peter Lang. 1990.

Reprinted in: World Englishes 8, 3. 389-406. 1989.

Zentz, Lauren

Poplack, Shana, Lauren Zentz & Nathalie Dion. 2012. Phrase-final prepositions in Quebec French: An empirical study of contact, code-switching and resistance to convergence. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 15, 2. 203-225.

Poplack, Shana, Lauren Zentz & Nathalie Dion. 2012. What counts as (contact-induced) change. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 15, 2. 247-254.

Poplack, Shana, Nathalie Dion & Lauren Zentz. 2019. L’anglicisme syntaxique : Produit inévitable du contact des langues ? Circula : revue d’idéologies linguistiques 9. 78-105.

Ziliak Michel, Zoe

Blondeau, Hélène, Nathalie Dion & Zoe Ziliak Michel. 2013. Future temporal reference in the bilingual repertoire of Anglo-Montrealers: A twin variable. International Journal of Bilingualism 18, 6. 674-692.